【Major Points】

  1. Early myocarditis is like colds and gastrointestinal symptoms.
  2. Treatment for myocarditis may include medications or surgeries.
  3. Preventing infection and improving immunity are the principles of home health care.


What is myocarditis?
Myocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle layer caused by an invasion of myocardium by viruses, bacteria, or toxins. 


Common symptoms of myocarditis:

Common myocarditis symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches, fatigue, chest pain, and arrhythmia, etc. Early myocarditis is like colds and gastrointestinal disease, which are easily ignored. If not treated in time, it may lead to heart failure.


If you have any of the above symptoms, it does not necessarily mean that it is myocarditis, please go to the cardiac clinic.


Common treatment methods:

  1. Drug treatment: The doctor will give antiviral drug first, and if it is a bacterial infection, antibiotics will be added. When symptoms of heart failure appear, the doctor will add cardiotonic drugs or blood pressure drugs as appropriate.
  2. Surgical treatment: When drugs fail to improve heart failure, doctors may use an extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation or a left ventricular assist device to help the patients depending on their condition. In severe cases, a heart transplant even needs to be performed.


Principles of care:

  1. Prevention of infections: Respiratory tract infections and intestinal infections should particularly be prevented. During any influenza epidemic, it is advised to reduce visits to public places. When necessary, it is preferable to wear a mask and wash hands frequently.
  2. Proper rest: It is necessary to avoid overworked or excessive physical exertion. Patients experiencing acute onset should stay in bed for 2 to 4 weeks and in severe cases, they should rest for 2 to 3 months. You should maintain a good work routine. Stop staying up late and attending parties, etc.
  3. Enhancement of immunity: maintain physical well-being, balance nutrition, drink more water, rest more, and choose the right exercise to strengthen your physical fitness.
  4. Diet: Eat more high-calorie, high-protein, and high-vitamin foods; avoid spicy, grilled, and fried foods.
  5. If you experience repetitive upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract symptoms with rapid breathing, chest pain, and arrhythmia, please seek the medical treatment as soon as possible so as not to miss the opportunity for early treatment. 



  1. Basso, C. (2022). Myocarditis. New England Journal of Medicine, 387(16), 1488 -1500. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra2114478
  2. Ko, Y., F. (2018).A Critical Nursing Experience of Caring for an Adolescent Patient with Myocarditis.Chang Gung Nursing,29 (3),491-501。https://doi.org/10.6386/CGN.201809_29(3).0014
  3. Olejniczak, M., Schwartz, M., Webber, E., Shaffer, A., & Perry, T. E. (2020). Viral myocarditis—Incidence, diagnosis and management. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 34(6), 1591-1601. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2019.12.052
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