What is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)?
The prostate gland is a gland that is part of the male reproductive system. It lies at the outlet of the urinary bladder where it surrounds the urethra. The main function of the prostate is to produce part of the semen and help sperm get into the urethra. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease that relates to aging, and occurs among most male while age over fifty. The symptoms of BPH and quality of life can both be improved after appropriate treatment.
 
What are the symptoms of BPH?
  1. Having difficulty starting to urinate; decreased strength of the urine       stream (weak flow).
  2. Frequent urination: having a urinating sensation all the time. Nocturia: more frequent urination, especially during the night.
  3. Dripping at the end of urination.
  4. Acute urinary retention: sudden onset of inability to urinate despite urinary bladder distension.
  5. Hematuria: the presence of blood color in the urine.
 
How is BPH treated?
  1. Medications: prescription is according to the size of the prostate and the severity of symptoms.
  2. TransUrethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) can be used to treat BPH.
  3. Laser therapy: a laser beam is used to make an incision or to remove part of the prostate.
 
Cautions for daily life:
  1. Avoid holding urine.
  2. Avoid alcohol.
  3. Avoid anti-histamine-like medications.
  4. If you often awake due to a urinating sensation, try to limit your fluid intake in the evening and empty your urinary bladder before bedtime.
  5. Personal hygiene: regular showers and keeping your perineum area dry and clean.
  6. Reduce stress by exercising regularly.
  7. Regular follow-up in an outpatient department and take all medications on time.
  8. Please look for medical advices, if symptoms such as acute urinary retention, urinary bladder distension, hematuria, persist. 
 
Reference
  1. Foster, H. E., Dahm, P., Kohler, T. S., Lerner, L. B., Parsons, J. K., Wilt, T.  J., & McVary, K. T. (2019). Surgical management of lower urinary tractsymptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia: AUA Guideline Amendment 2019.  The Journal of urology, 202(3), 592-598. https://doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000000319
  2. Rastrelli, G., Vignozzi, L., Corona, G., & Maggi, M. (2019). Testosterone and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Sexual medicine reviews, 7(2), 259-271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sxmr.2018.10.006
  3. Vickman, R. E., Franco, O. E., Moline, D. C., Vander Griend, D. J., Thumbikat, P., & Hayward, S. W. (2019). The role of the androgen receptor in prostate development and benign prostatic hyperplasia: A review.  Asian Journal of Urology, 7(3),191-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajur.2019.10.003
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